Tag Archives: Light

A Little Bit of  “Light” Reading

Have you ever wondered how we see the light and the world around us? Depending on where you are in the world half of the day is most likely spent illuminated by the sun. Most life on earth is dependent on light or the ability to see. So what exactly is light?

To put it in the absolute simplest way possible, light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation exists in the form of waves and is measured by its wavelengths and classified by frequencies. Different wavelengths result in different forms of electromagnetic radiation.

Light wave

The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation from longest wavelength to shortest is Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared, Ultraviolet, X-Rays, and Gamma Rays. Between Infrared and Ultraviolet frequencies exists the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that are visible to the human eye. 

Light

Out of all the different frequencies that exist, why did we adapt to seeing these frequencies? The most likely reason is that these frequencies are the most abundant ones produced by the sun that actually reach planet earth. Plants and animals simply grew to what they had available.

Eye

Because colors that we see are just different frequencies of ERM, does that mean that there are colors we can’t see? The answer is yes. Human beings only have three types of color receptors in our eyes. We have color receptors for reds and greens, blues and yellows, and black and white. Some animals have many more like the mantis shrimp. The mantis shrimp has a whopping 16 different color receptors. There’s no way to know what exactly the world would look like through the eyes of a mantis shrimp but it can be fun to imagine.

Odontodactylus Scyllarus

Written by: Adam Robinson

For more information visit https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/light_travel.html or https://cimioutdoored.org/light-2

 

Light and Color Below the Surface

Have you ever gone diving and noticed that colors above the surface may look very different than colors below? This is because light and color are very different underwater. Water is very good at absorbing light, and to understand this a little bit better, let’s talk about good ol’ Roy G. Biv.

light

(Light on the surface appears very different than light below.)

Roy G. Biv (an acronym for the color spectrum) stands for the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. These colors are in order from lowest to highest energy. Sunlight contains all of the colors of our visible color spectrum and these colors combined together create white light. As you travel from the surface to deeper waters, the amount of light changes and decreases with depth.

light wave

(Red light has the longest wavelength as shown above.)

Red light has the longest wavelength and therefore has the least amount of energy in the color spectrum. Wavelength decreases as energy increases as you move from red to violet light across the color spectrum. Blue light however penetrates the water the best. This is why the ocean can appear in many different shades of blue. Unlike blue light, red light becomes quickly filtered from water as the depth increases. At around 300 feet, no visible light can penetrate the water at all!

Let’s take an apple for example. At the surface an apple appears red. It appears red because it is reflecting that red light from the sun. When taking this apple down to depth at around 70 feet however, it lacks the red coloration and appears greyish. This is because the deeper you go, there is less and less red light to reflect off the apple. This is an amazing adaptation for deep-sea creatures to have. Deep-sea creatures that are red will appear less visible to prey.

light brooke

(Left: Apple appears brownish at depth.)

 

 

 

 

 

Resources:

http://aquaairind.com/news/Why-Are-Colors-Different-Underwater

http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/facts/red-color.html

http://researchthetopic.com

Written By: Brooke Fox

Biofluorescence: Sea Creatures Glow with Invisible Ink

You’ve probably heard of bioluminescence, where some ocean animals make their own light to communicate, attract prey, or distract predators. But did you know that much of the ocean world is already glowing in a way that’s invisible to your naked eye? Many corals, more than than 180 species of fish, some sharks, at least three types of eels, and one critically endangered sea turtle, the Hawksbill, would actually display neon colors if you were to shine a black light or UV light on them, in a phenomenon called biofluorescence.

biofluorescence

That’s right: When stimulated by UV light, these creatures produce all sorts of flashy colors, from reds to greens to eerie iridescent purples. Unlike bioluminescence, these types of light signatures depend on a light source, and are typically invisible to the human eye. That’s why, until as recently as 2014, researchers didn’t know that other marine species besides coral were capable of this type of biofluorescence. In fact, it wasn’t until an eel accidentally “photo-bombed” a video shoot of coral under a UV light (below) that marine biologists began to investigate this capability in other animals!

Biofluorescence 2

Why do they do it? 

Scientists don’t know why creatures biofluoresce, but some hypothesize that it may be a form of complex communication with only other creatures who may see these unique UV emissions. For example, sharks eyes are adapted with special color filters that allow them to see the biofluorescent signals of other animals, which could allow them to pass signals back and forth.

Biofluorescence 1

How does it work? 

Fluorescence happens when high intensity electromagnetic energy, such as UV light, excites an electron so that it jumps to a high-energy, unstable state. As the electrons fall back down to their natural resting place in the atom, they releases excess energy in the form of photons, or small packets of light, and the result is a colorful glow. This principle is used often in biological microscopy (illustrated below).

Biofluorescence 4

How do we know? 

While we don’t know much about biofluorescence yet, many scientists are undertaking studies to determine more about how it works and what purpose it might serve. To capture fluorescence, a photographer must shine high intensity blue light on an animal and then photograph it using a camera with a yellow filter that blocks out the blue, allowing the fluorescence to shine through. Dr. David Gruber and his team recently built “sharks-eye” view cameras to simulate fluorescent vision and investigate the underwater world from a fish-eye view. What they found was an amazing Technicolor carnival, starring many of the creatures we can find in our own coves at CIMI: Scorpionfish, swell sharks, and round rays!

What’s the deal with this secret underwater light show? It’s just one more mystery of the deep!

For more, check out:

 

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We would like to thank you for visiting our blog. Catalina Island Marine Institute is a hands-on marine science program with an emphasis on ocean exploration. Our classes and activities are designed to inspire students toward future success in their academic and personal pursuits. This blog is intended to provide you with up-to-date news and information about our camp programs, as well as current science and ocean happenings. This blog has been created by our staff who have at least a Bachelors Degree usually in marine science or related subjects. We encourage you to also follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Google+, Twitter, and Vine to see even more of our interesting science and ocean information. Feel free to leave comments, questions, or share our blog with others. Please visit www.cimi.org for additional information. Happy Reading!

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